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Ihe Niile I Kwesịrị Ịma Banyere Pyridines

Ihe Niile I Kwesịrị Ịma Banyere Pyridines

Ihe Niile I Kwesiri Ịma Banyere Pyridines

Pyridine bụ isi heterocyclic nke azine ụdị. A na-enweta pyridine site na benzene site na ngbanwe nke òtù CH site N-atom. Ngwurugwu Pyridine dị ka ihe dị na benzene, n'ihi na ọ bụ site na nnọchi nke CH na-emetụta ya site N.

  1. Ịpụ na geometry nke na-emechi mgbe niile n'ihi ọnụnọ nke hetero atom, iji kọwaa ya, obere mkpụmkpụ nitrogen-carbon,
  2. Mgbanwe nke oghere hydrogen na mgbanaka mgbanaka ya na eriri eletrọn ahụ na-adịghị arụ ọrụ, dị ka mgbanaka mgbanaka ahụ, nke dị n'ime orbital hybrid sp2, ma ghara itinye aka na aromatic p-electron sextet. Nke a na-ejikọta otu onye na-ahụ maka ihe ndị bụ isi nke pyridine,
  3. Onye na-adịgide adịgide na-adịgide adịgide na-achọpụta na electronegativity dị elu nke nitrogen atom ma e jiri ya tụnyere carbon atom.

Ngwurugwu Pyridine na-apụta n'ọtụtụ ebe dị mkpa, gụnyere vitamin nacin, pyridoxine, nakwa azines.

Onye na-agwọ ọrịa Scottish, Thomas Anderson mepụtara pyridine na 1849 dị ka otu n'ime ogige ndị mejupụtara mmanụ ala. Mgbe afọ abụọ gasịrị, Anderson nwetara pyridine dị ọcha site na distillation fractional nke mmanụ ọkpụkpụ. Ọ bụ nnukwu ọkụ ọkụ, na-enweghị ntụpọ, mmiri na-edozi mmiri, mmiri mmiri na-adịghị ike nke nwere mmiri na-adịghị ahụkebe, dị ka isi ísì.

A na-eji pyridine eme ihe mgbe nile dị ka ihe ndị na-emepụta ọgwụ na agrochemicals nakwa ihe dị oké mkpa na ihe nkwụsị. A pụrụ itinye pyridine na ethanol ma ọ bụrụ na ịchọrọ ime ka ọ ghara ịdị mma maka oriri mmadụ. Ọ dịkwa mma na mmepụta ọgwụ ndị mepyram na ọgwụ mgbochi, in vitro njikọ DNA, na mmepụta nke sulfapyridine (ọgwụ maka ịgwọ ọrịa nje na nje bacteria), yana bactericides, herbicides, na ndị na-asọ mmiri.

Otutu ogidi ihe ndi ozo, obu ezie na ha emeghi site na pyridine, nwere ogidi nchara. Ogige ndị dị otú ahụ gụnyere B vitamin dị ka pyridoxine na niacin, nicotine, ihe ọkụkụ nwere ihe ọkụkụ, na ọgwụ nje a na-akpọ isoniazid. A na-emepụta Pyridine n'akụkọ ihe mere eme dị ka ihe na-emepụta nke nkwonkwo akwara na site na mkpuru ọka. Otú ọ dị, ihe dị oké ọnụ ahịa nke pyridine mere ka e nwee usoro akụ na ụba nke mepụtara site na amonia na acetaldehyde, a na-emepụta kwa tonnes 20,000 kwa afọ n'ụwa nile.

Nomenclature nke pyridine

Aha akwukwo nke pyridine, dika akwukwo aha Hantzsch-Widman nke IUPAC nyere aro, bu azine. Mana edere aha maka usoro ihe eji eme ihe ka ejiji; kama, nomenclature nke heterocycles na-esote aha ndị a kwadoro. IUPAC anaghị agba ume iji ya mee ihe azine mgbe ị na-ezo aka pyridine.

Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mkpụrụ ndụ mgbanaka na azine amalite na nitrogen. Ihe odide Grik nke mkpụrụ akwụkwọ (α-γ) na nsụgharị nomenclature na-eme ka ọnọdụ dị iche iche dị iche iche dị iche iche dị iche iche na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe a na-emekarị n'usoro usoro homoaromatic (para ortho, ihe mgbaru ọsọ,) na-eji mgbe ụfọdụ. Lee α, β na y na-ezo aka na abụọ, atọ, na anọ ọnọdụ, karị.

Aha nhazi maka ihe ozo nke pyridine bu pyridinyl, ebe ọnụọgụgụ na-ebute ọnọdụ n'ọnọdụ ntanetị dị tupu ọnụọgụgụ. Ma aha ihe omuma pyridyl IUPAC na-akwado ya ma jiri ya mee ihe n'usoro aha aha. Ihe a na-emepụta site na mgbakwunye nke onye na-ahọpụta ndị na-amịnye ya na nitrogen atom pyridinium.

4-bromopyridine

2,2'-bipyridine

Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid)

Ụdị ụdị nke pyridinium cation

Production nke pyridine

E nwetara pyridine dị ka ihe na-emepụta ma ọ bụ nke a na-amịpụta site n'ọkụ. Usoro a adịghị arụ ọrụ ma na-arụ ọrụ: ụfụ ọkụ nwere gburugburu 0.1 percent pyridine, ya mere ọ dị mkpa ịmecha ihe dị iche iche, bụ nke belata ihe mmepụta ahụ. Taa, a na-eme pyridine ọtụtụ synthetically site na iji ọtụtụ aha mmeghachi omume, na ọtụtụ ndị nkịtị na-atụle ebe a n'okpuru.

Njikọ Pyridine site na Bohlmann-Rahtz

Pyridine njikọ site na Bohlmann-Rahtz na-enye ohere ọgbọ nke na-anọ pyridines na abụọ isi nzọụkwụ. Mgbanwe nke enamines site na iji ethynylketones na-emepụta ebe nchekwa aminodiene, nke, mgbe amịpụsịrị nke okpomọkụ, na-enweta mmiri mmiri iji mepụta 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines.

Njikọ Pyridine site na usoro Bohlmann-Rahtz

Usoro ahụ metụtara njikọ Hantzsch Dihydropyridine a ma ama ebena ọnọdụ-agbadoro mpempe ume na umu anu ndi na-eme dihydropyridines. Ọ bụ ezie na Bohlmann-Rahtz Synthesis bụ nke ọma vasatail, na ịdị ọcha nke etiti na oké uche dị oké ọnụ okpomọkụ chọrọ maka na mmiri ozuzo bụ ihe ịma aka ndị na-ejedebe ya utility. Ihe ka ukwuu n'ime ihe ịma aka ndị a emeriwo, na-eme ka Bohlmann-Rahtz njikọ dịkwuo mkpa na pyridines ọgbọ.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị nyocha ọ bụla e mere, ndị na-etinye aka na ha nwere ike ịbụ H-NMR. Nke a na-egosi na ngwaahịa bụ isi nke mbụ Michael Addition na proton transfers pụrụ ịbụ 2Z-4E-heptadien-6-otu nke a na-amịpụtara ma dị ọcha site na kọlụm chromatography.

Ọ dị mkpa iji okpomọkụ dị elu na-ekpo ekpo ọkụ dị mkpa maka ikwado Z/E nhazi nke bu ihe ndi choro ime maka ikpochapu.

Ejila ụzọ dị iche iche a na-eme ka e nwee njikọ nke tetra na pyridine nke a na-atụgharị obi na usoro ihe omume n'otu oge. Kama iji butynone mee ihe dị ka mkpụrụ, Bagley nwalere ihe dị iche iche maka ntụgharị nke obere 4- (trimethylsilyl) ma-3-yn-2-one. A gosiputara na naanị DMSO na EtOH bụ ihe nkwụsị dị mma. O doro anya na a na-ele EtOH anya dịka polar na protest solvent vs. DMSO dị ka ihe ngwugwu aprotic pola. N'ime ihe mgbaze abụọ ahụ, mmepụta ihe na-ewere ọnọdụ n'amaghị ama. Bagley egosipụtakwa na ikuku acid na-enye ohere ikuku mmiri na-aga n'ihu na okpomọkụ.

Ọkpụkpụ acid na-emekwa ka mgbakwunye conjugate. A na-emeghachi ihe dị iche iche nke enamines na ethynyl ketones na ngwakọta (5: 1) nke acetic acid na toluene iji nweta pyridines arụ ọrụ na otu nzọụkwụ na-arụpụta nke ọma.

Mgbe ihe ịga nke ọma na Brønstedt acid gasịrị, ọkà mmụta ọgwụ ahụ nyochachara ikike nke Lewis acid. Ọnọdụ kacha mma Mee ma ọ bụ abụọ mol% ytterbium triflate ma ọ bụ pasent iri na ise% zinc bromide na refluxing toluene. Ọ bụ ezie na a chọghị nchọpụta usoro, anyị nwere ike iche na nchịkọta site na mmepụta ahụ na-agba ọsọ nke mmiri ozuzo, Michael Addition, na nzọụkwụ isomerization.

Ihe dị n'ime ala bụ njedebe na-ejedebe na ihe na-adọrọ adọrọ acid. Dị ka ọmụmaatụ, mmebi nke acid na-eme ka mmiri dị ọkụ na-ewere ọnọdụ na cyano na tert-butylester dị ka eletrik na-ahapụ ìgwè dị iche iche. Nhọrọ ọzọ dị nro bụ ngwa nke Amberlyst-15 ion na-agbanwe mgbanwe na-anabata tert-butylesters.

Ebe ọ bụ na enamines adịghị ngwa ngwa, na iji mee ka usoro ahụ dịkwuo elu, a na-eme ihe omume 3-mpaghara site na iji ammonium acetate dị ka isi iyi nke amino. N'ime usoro a dị irè, a na-enyocha enamine na ọnọdụ nke na-emeghachi omume na ihe dị ugbu a.

Ke akpa ikpe, ZnBr2 na AcOH na - eji ya eme ihe dị ka okpukpu atọ dị ka ihe mgbaze. Otú ọ dị, a gosipụtawo ya ugbu a na mkpụrụ ndụ acid-sensitive substrates na-emekarị na ebe dị nwayọọ na EtOH dịka ihe mgbaze.

Njikọ Chichibabin

Ebu ụzọ kọọrọ Chichibabin pyridine njikọ na 1924 ma ka bụ ihe dị mkpa na ụlọ ọrụ na-emepụta ọgwụ. Ọ bụ mmeghachi ahụ nke na-eme ka mgbatị, nke gụnyere nkwụsị nke mmeghachi omume nke aldehydes, ketones, α, β-unsaturated carbonyl acounds. Ọzọkwa, usoro dum nke mmeghachi omume nwere ike ịgụnye nchikota nke ngwaahịa ndị dị n'elu na ammonia dị ọcha ma ọ bụ ihe mgbapụta ya.

Nhazi nke Pyridine

Ụdị nke formaldehyde na acetaldehyde

Formaldehyde na acetaldehyde bụ tumadi nke pyridine a na-enweghị atụ. Ma ọ dịkarịa ala, ha na-akwụ ụgwọ ma dị mfe inweta ya.

  1. Nzọụkwụ mbụ na-agụnye ịme acroaldede site formaldehyde na acetaldehyde site na Knoevenagel condensation.
  2. A na-emepụta ngwaahịa ikpeazụ site na acrolein na acetaldehyde na amonia, na-akpụ dihydropyridine.
  3. Usoro nke ikpeazụ bụ mmeghachi ihe na-ekpo ọkụ na-eme ka onye na-eme ihe ike na-emepụta pyridine.
  4. A na-emeghachi omume a n'elu ebe a na-ekpo ọkụ gas na-enwe okpomọkụ nke 400-450 Celsius C. Ngwurugwu a kpụrụ bụ pyridine, picoline ma ọ bụ pyridines dị na methylated dị mfe, na lutidine. Otú ọ dị, ihe mejupụtara ahụ bụ ihe nchịkọta nke eji ya na ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ, ọ dịgasị iche na onye chọrọ ya. Otutu, ihe mmeputa bu nnu uzo ngbanwe. Ihe kachasịsị bụ manganese (II) fluoride ma ọ bụ cadmium (II) fluoride, ọ bụ ezie na thallium na cobalt ogige nwere ike ịbụ ụzọ ọzọ.
  5. A na-enweta pyridine site na ngwaahịa ndị dị na usoro nhazi nke ukwuu. Mkpebi ukwu nke Chichibabin pyridine synthesis bụ mkpụrụ ya dị ala, na-asụgharị banyere 20% nke ngwaahịa ikpeazụ. N'ihi nke a, ụdị a na-adịghị edozi nke onyinye a anaghị adịkarị.

Bönnemann cyclization

Bönnemann cyclization bụ ịmepụta mkpụmkpụ site na nchikota akụkụ abụọ nke acetylene molecule na akụkụ nke nitrile. N'ezie, usoro a bụ mgbanwe nke nsụgharị Reppe.

Usoro a na-eme ka usoro ahụ dị mfe site na okpomọkụ sitere na okpomọkụ na nrụgide ma ọ bụ site na cycloaddition foto. Mgbe ọkụ na-arụ ọrụ, mmekọrịta cyclization Bönnemann chọrọ CoCp2 (cyclopentadienyl, 1,5-cyclooctadiene) iji mee ihe dị ka onye na-akpali akpali.

Usoro a nwere ike ịmepụta ụdị pyridine na-adabere na ogige ndị e ji mee ihe. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, acetonitrile ga-emepụta 2-methylpyridine, nke nwere ike ịmalite ịmịkọrọ ọnụ iji mepụta pyridine.

Ụzọ ndị ọzọ

Kröhnke pyridine njikọ

Usoro a na-eji pyridine dị ka ihe nhazi, ọ bụ ezie na a gaghị etinye ya na ngwaahịa ikpeazụ. N'aka nke a, mmeghachi omume ga - emepụta pyridine.

Mgbe a na-emeghachi ya na ndị na-agba ụkwụ, pyridine ga-enweta mmeghachi omume Michael dị ka carbonyls ndị a na-ejighi emepụta iji mepụta pyridine na pyridium bromide. A na-emeso mmeghachi omume ahụ na ametia acetate n'ime 20-100 ° C ọnọdụ dị nwayọọ.

Nkọwa nke Ciamician-Dennstedt

Nke a gụnyere mgbaba nke pyrrole na dichlorocarbene na-akpụ 3-chloropyridine.

Gattermann-Skita synthesis

Na mmeghachi omume a, nnu ester malonate na-arụ ọrụ na dichloromethylamine n'ihu ọnụ ala.

Boger pyridine njikọ

Mmeghachi omume nke pyridines

Omume ndị na-esonụ nwere ike ịkọwa maka pyridines site na usoro ihe owuwu ha:

  1. The heteroatom na-eme ka pyridine bụrụ ihe na-adịghị emetụ n'ahụ mgbanwe nke aromatic electrophilic nkịtị. N'aka nke ozo, pyridine nwere ike ibuso agha nucleophilic. Ndị Pyridines na-eme mgbanwe mgbanwe nke electrophilic (SEAr) ma ọ bụrụ na ngbanwe nucleophilic (SNAr) dị mfe karịa benzene.
  2. Ndị na-emepụta electrophilic na-awakpo ihe kacha mma na Natom na na bC-atom, ebe ndị na-emepụta nucleophilic na-ahọrọ a- na cC-atom.

Mgbakwunye Electrophilic na Nitrogen

Na mmeghachi omume nke gụnyere ntinye nkekọ nke eji otu electrons na nitrogen ahụ, dị ka protonation na nhazi, pyridines na-akpa àgwà dịka aliphatic ma ọ bụ aromatic amines.

Mgbe pyridine megharịrị dịka isi ma ọ bụ nucleophile, ọ na-eme ka a na-etinye pyridinium cation nke a na-ejigide sextet, na nitrogen na-enweta ụgwọ ọrụ ziri ezi.

Protonation na Nitrogen

Pyridines na-etolite crystalline, ugboro ugboro hygroscopic, salts na ọtụtụ protic asịd.

Nitration na Nitrogen

Nke a na-eme ngwa ngwa site na mmeghachi omume nke pyridines na nitronium salts, dị ka nitronium tetrafluoroborate. Ndị na-emepụta ọgwụ na-emepụta ọgwụ dị ka nitric acid, n'ezie, na-eduga naanị N-protonation.

Acylation na nitrogen

Acid chlorides na acry arylsulfonic na-eme ngwa ngwa na pyridines na-emepụta 1-acyl- na 1-arylsulfonylpyridinium salts na ngwọta.

Alkyl halides na sulfates mere ngwa ngwa na pyridines na-enye salts pyridinium quaternary.

Ngwadogwu Nucleophilic

N'adịghị ka benzene, ọtụtụ ndapụta nucleophilic nwere ike iji pyridine kwadoo ma rụọ ọrụ nke ọma. Ọ bụ n'ihi na mgbanaka ahụ nwere ntakịrị eletrik nke carbon carbon. Mmeghachi omume ndị a na-agụnye ndị dochie anya na mwepụ nke ion hydride na mgbakwunye-mgbakwunye iji nweta nhazi aryne etiti na-aga n'ihu na 2- ma ọ bụ 4.

Nanị Pyridine nwere ike ime ka e nwee ọtụtụ ngbanwe nucleophilic. Otú ọ dị, mgbanwe nke pyridine na bromine, sulfọnic acid gwiwuru, chlorine, na fluorine nwere ike ime ka otu ìgwè na-ahapụ. E nwere ike ịchọta ngwongwo omeolithium nke kachasị mma. Ná nnukwu nrụgide, nucleophilic nwere ike imeghachi omume na alkoxides, ndị na-egbu nri, amines, na ogige ammonia.

Ole na ole heterocyclic mmeghachi omume nwere ike ime n'ihi na ị na-eji otu onye na-ahapụ ndị dara ogbenye dịka hydride ion. A pụrụ inweta ihe ndị Pyridine na ọnọdụ 2 site na Chichibabin mmeghachi omume. 2-aminopyridine nwere ike ịnọgide na-enweta mgbe a na-eji sodium amide mee ihe dị ka nucleophile. A na-emepụta ahịrị mmiri ahụ mgbe protons nke amino na-ejikọta na ion hydride.

Dị ka benzene, pyridines a na-enwetakwa ndị na-etinye aka na ha dịka heteroaryne site na mgbakwunye nucleophilic na pyridine. Ojiji nke alkaline siri ike dị ka sodium na potassium tert-butoxide nwere ike inyere aka ịkwụsị ihe ndị na-eme pyridine mgbe ha na-eji ikike ahapụ ìgwè. Mgbe ịmebata nucleophile na nkeji nke atọ ahụ, ọ na-eme ka nhọrọ ahụ dị ala ma na-eduga n'inwe ngwakọta nke nwere akwụkwọ abụọ ọ ga-ekwe omume.

Ihe Nhọrọ Electrophilic

Otutu pyridine electrophilic substitutions nwere ike ịga n'ihu ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ anaghị anọgide kpamkpam. N'aka nke ọzọ, a pụrụ ịmepụta ihe mmeghe ahụ site na functionalization nke onyinye electron. Friedel-Crafts alkylation (acylation) bụ ihe atụ nke alkylations na acylations. Akụkụ ahụ anaghị enweta pyridine ebe ọ na-ebute na mgbakwunye nke atọm nitrogen. Mgbanwe ndị a na-emekarị n'ọnọdụ atọ nke bụ otu n'ime mkpụrụ carbon carbon-rich rich in the ring making it easy to supplement electrophilic.

Nhazi nke Pyridine N-Oxide

Mgbanwe nke Electrophilic nwere ike ịkpata mgbanwe nke pyridine na 2- ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ 4 n'ihi nsogbu ọjọọ nke mmeghachi omume siri ike. Otú ọ dị, a pụrụ iji ụzọ nyocha mee ihe mgbe ị na-eme mgbanwe electrophilic na pyridine N-oxide. Ọ na-esochi nitrogen atom deoxygenation. Ya mere, ịmalite ikuku oxygen maara iji belata njupụta na nitrogen ma mee ka ngbanwe dị na 2 na ọnọdụ 4-carbons.

A maara ogige nke sọlfọ divalent ma ọ bụ phosphorus dị na ya ka ọ bụrụ na a na-egbu ya n'ụzọ dị mfe n'ihi na ọ bụ iji wepụ oxygen atom. Ngwunye oxide nke Triphenylphosphine bụ onyinye a na-emepụta mgbe e gbusịrị oxygen nke Triphenylphosphine reagent. Ọ bụ ihe ọzọ mgbochi nke a pụrụ iji mee ka ikpochapụ oxygen atom site na ihe ọzọ. Ihe omuma nke a na - akowa ihe ndi mmadu na - achota na pyridine.

Ntuchi pyridine na-achọ ụfọdụ ọnọdụ siri ike, ọ na-enwekarị obere mkpụrụ. Mmeghachi omume nke dinitrogen pentoxide na pyridine n'ihu sodium nwere ike ime ka e guzobe 3-nitropyridine. A pụrụ inweta ihe ndị sitere na pyridine site na ntinye nke nitronium tetrafluoroborate (NO2BF4) site na iburu atọrọ nitrogen dị na ntanetị. Njikọ nke ogige abụọ nke 6-dibromo pyridine nwere ike ime ka e guzobe 3-nitropyridine mgbe mwepụsịrị etiti bromine.

A na-ewere nchịkọta nchịkwa dị ka ihe dị mma karịa sulfonation kpọmkwem nke pyridine. Ịmepụta pyridine na 320 Celsius C nwere ike ịkpata pyridine-3-sulfonic acid ngwa ngwa karịa sulfuric acid n'otu oge. Mgbakwunye nke eriri sulfur ahụ ruo nitrogen aturu nwere ike nweta site na ịzaghachi òtù SO3 na ọnụnọ nke mercury (II) sulfate nke na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-eme ihe.

Nchịkọta chlorination na bromination nwere ike ịga n'ihu nke ọma n'adịghị ka mmiri na sulfonation. 3-bromopyridine nwere ike nweta site na mmeghachi omume nke bromine molecular na sulfuric acid na 130 ° C na pyridine. Na chlorination, nsonaazụ nke 3-chloropyridine nwere ike ịdị ntakịrị na ọnụnọ nke chloride chloride nke na-eme dị ka ihe nhazi na 100 ° C. Mmezi nke halogen na palladium (II) nwere ike ibute ma 2-bromopyridine na 2-chloropyridine.

Ngwa nke Pyridine

Otu n'ime ihe ndị dị mkpa nke dị oké mkpa maka ụlọ ọrụ chemical bụ pyridine. Na 1989, mmepụta nke pyridine n'ụwa dum bụ tonnes 26K. N'ihe gbasara 1999, 11 si na 25 kasị emepụta ebe pyridine dị na Europe. Ndị na-emepụta pyridine ndị bụ isi gụnyere Koei Chemical, Imperial Chemical Industries, na Evonik Industries.

Na mmalite 2000s, mmepụta nke pyridine mụbara site na oke elu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mba China kachasị aka na-enweta ikike mmepụta afọ nke 30,000 tonnes. Taa, nkwonkwo aka n'etiti US na China na-ebute mmepụta pyridine kasị elu n'ụwa.

Pesticides

A na-eji Pyridine eme ihe dị ka ihe dị na paraquat abụọ na herbicides diquat na paraquat. Na nkwadebe nke fungicides nke pyrithione, a na-eji pyridine mee ihe dị ka onyinye dị na ya.

Mmeghachi omume n'etiti Zincke na pyridine na - arụpụta mmepụta nke ogige abụọ - laurylpyridinium na ceylpyridinium. N'ihi ihe ha na-eme na antiseptik, a na-agbakwunye ogige abụọ ahụ na ọgwụ ndị na-elekọta ahụ.

Mwakpo onye na-akpata alkylating na nsonaazụ pyridine na nnu N-alkylpyridinium, cylpyridinium chloride bụ otu ihe atụ.

Njikọ Paraquat

Ihe nkwụsị

Ngwa ọzọ nke pyridine ji mee ihe bụ na Knoevenagel condensations, nke a na-eji ya dị ka ihe dị ala, pola, na ihe nchịkwa dị mkpa. Pyridine kachasị mma maka nkwarụ, ebe ọ na-eje ozi dịka isi nke mmeghasị mmeghachi omume mgbe ọ na-ejikọta hydrogen halide na-emepụta ka ọ ghọọ nnu pyridinium.

N'ịkọwapụta na enerifications, Pyridine na-eme ka anhydrides ma ọ bụ carboxylic acid na-emechi. Ọbụna na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mmeghachi omume ndị a bụ 4- (1-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine na 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), nke bụ pyridine mmepụta. N'ihe ntụgharị uche, Pyridine na-eji ya mee ihe dịka isi.

Ịkpụ pyridinium site na mmeghasị mmeghachi omume na pyridine

Pyridine bụkwa ihe dị mkpa dị na ụlọ ọrụ textile. E wezụga iji ya mee ihe na-emepụta ihe na-emepụta ihe na-emepụta roba na ejiji, a na-ejikwa ya mee ka ọrụ netwọk nke owu nwee.

Nchịkwa Na-ahụ maka Nri na Ọgwụ na United States na-anakwere mgbakwunye pyridine na obere ihe oriri iji nye ha ihe ụtọ dị ilu.

Na ngwọta, nchọpụta ụzọ nke pyridine dị gburugburu 1-3 mmol·L-1 (79-237 mg · L-1). N'ịbụ isi, pyridine nwere ike iji ya dị ka onye na-akwụ Karl Fischer. Otú ọ dị, a na-ejikarị imidazole eme ihe dị ka pyridine dị ka ya (imidazole) nwere isi ísì ụtọ.

Onye na-aga n'ihu na Piperidine

Ngwurugwu Pyridine na ruthenium-, cobalt, ma ọ bụ nickel na-akpali akpali na okpomọkụ na-emepụta mmepụta nke piperidine. Nke a bụ ihe dị mkpa nitrogen heterocycle nke dị oké mkpa.

Ihe omuma puru iche Dabere na Pyridine

Na 1975, William Suggs na James Corey mepụtara pyridinium chlorochromate. A na-etinye ya na oxidize nke abụọ mmanya na ketones na isi alcohols ka aldehydes. A na-enwetakarị pyridinium chlorochromate mgbe e tinyere pyridine na ngwọta nke hydrochloric na chromic acid.

C5H5N + HCl + CrO3 → [C5H5NH] [CrO3Cl]

Na chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2) ịbụ carcinogenic, a ghaghị ịchọ ụzọ ọzọ. Otu n'ime ha bụ iji pyridinium chloride na-emeso chromium (VI) oxide.

[C5H5NH+] Cl- + CrO3 → [C5H5NH] [CrO3Cl]

Ndị na-eme ka Sarret (mgbagwoju nke chromium (VI) oxide na pyridine heterocycle na pyridine), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), mkpụrụ ọka Cornforth (pyridinium dichromate, PDC), na mkpụrụ ndụ Collins (mgbagwoju nke chromium (VI) oxide na pyridine heterocycle na dichloromethane) yiri nke chromium-pyridine ogige. A na-etinyekwa ha n'ọrụ maka ịbachasị ahụ, dị ka ntọghata nke abụọ na isi mmanya na ketones.

Ndị Sarret na ndị Collins bụ ndị na-emegharị ihe abụghị nanị ndị aghụghọ iji kwadebe, ma ha dịkwa ize ndụ. Ha bụ hygroscopic ma bụrụ ndị na-eleghara anya n'oge nkwadebe. N'ihi ya, a na-atụ aro iji PDC na PCC. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-eji ngwa ngwa abụọ ahụ eme ihe na 70s na 80s, a na-ejikarị ha eme ihe ugbu a n'ihi nsí na nkwenye ha.

Ihe odide nke Crabtree

Na nghazi onwu, pyridine bu nke a na-eji ya eme ihe dika ligand. Ọ na-arụpụta ihe, dị ka mmepụtara ya 2,2'-bipyridine, nke gụnyere mkpụrụ ndụ 2 pyridine nke ejiri otu njikọ, na terpyridine, ngwongwo nke 3 pyridine yiri mgbaaka jikọtara ọnụ.

Enwere ike iji ike Lewis dị ike dị ka onye na-anọchite anya na pyridine ligand nke bụ akụkụ nke mgbagwoju ígwè. A na-eji njirimara a eme ihe n 'ikpuchi nke mmeghasị na mmeghachi omume nke hydrogenation, na-eji, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ihe Carabtree nwere. A na-eweghachi pyridine Lingard mgbe a na-emeghachi omume mgbe ọ rụchara.

References

Nomenclature nke Organic Chemistry: Ntuziaka IUPAC na Aha Ndị A Họọrọ Aha 2013 (Akwụkwọ Blue Book). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 141.

Anderson, T. (1851). "Ueber die Producte der trocknen Destillation thierischer Materien" [Na ngwaahịa nke akọrọ distillation nke ihe anụ ahụ]. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 80: 44.

Sherman, AR (2004). "Pyridine". Na Paquette, L. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. e-EROS (Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis). New York: J. Wiley & Ụmụ.

Behr, A. (2008). Akwa homogene Katalyse. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 722.